The Skowronek Bankers
The Skowronek Bankers in the XIV Century
The Skowronek Bankers in the XV Century
The Skowronek Bankers in the XVI Century
The Skowronek Bankers in the XVII Century
The Skowronek Bankers in the XVIII Century
The Skowronek Bankers in the XIX Century
The Skowronek Bankers in the XX Century
The Skowronek Bankers in the XXI Century
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A link between the Jewish aristocracy of XX-century Warsaw and ancient Portuguese nobility.
"For the Jewish impact on humanity has been protean. In antiquity they were the great innovators in religion and morals. In the Dark Ages and early medieval Europe they were still an advanced people transmitting scarce knowledge and technology. Gradually they were pushed from the van and fell behind, by the end of the eighteenth century, they were seen as a bedraggled and obscurantist rearguard in the march of civilized humanity. But then came an astonishing second burst of creativity. Breaking out of the ghettos, they once more transformed human thinking, this time in the secular sphere. Much of the mental furniture of the modern world too is of Jewish fabrication." - Paul Johnson.
The first time on record that the Jewish surname Fuerst (also Fürst or Ferszt) corresponds to Rubin Fürst, born in Hamburg and who later lived in Denmark (1609-1690)[1.265]; he married Sarah Mussaphia[1.266] - they were my 13th great grandparents. Rubin's parents were Alvaro Alberto Dinis[1.267] and Beatriz Henriques de Milao - Jahia[1.268], meaning that he was a Jew of Sephardic ancestry. His surname was clearly "Germanized" like in the case of the de Belmonte family, which transformed it into von Schonenberg (see The Royal Josephs and Schoenberg) as well as several others of the same origin, out of fashion or in order to erase traces of their origins for fear of religious persecution.
But existing genealogies of Rubin Fürst consider him to be a direct descendant via his mother of Juliana de Menezes, born in 1480[1.269]. This surname corresponds to a celebrated family of the Portuguese nobility of those times, being one of its most famous members João Afonso Telo de Menezes 1º conde de Ourém, 4º conde de Barcelos[1.270], and this is a common ancestor of Rubin Fürst as well as his descendants (see De Menezes) and the Schoenberg family. Both the Fürst and Schoenberg families are cousins since the time in which they shared a common ancestor among the de Menezes family.
Indeed, María Pereira[1.272] who was a daughter of María Tellez de Menezes[1.271], a descendant of the count of Ourém, married Vasco Pires de Sampaio[1.273], a direct ancestor of Dom Iago de Sampaio y Belmonte (see Dom Iago de Sampayo y Belmonte) from whom the Warsaw Schoenbergs and myself descend. Thus, the Skowronek bankers and my own family descend from the Fürst and Schoenberg bloodlines.
Rubin was also a direct descendant of Yahya HaNasi[1.417] and Hiyya al Daudi[1.390], who were recognized as Davidic descendants by the Moors of Spain and Portugal of the XI and XII centuries, and hence their names and titles: HaNasi, which means "Prince", and al Daudi, which means "Son of Daud" or "Son of David", which in turn, is the way used still today within Islam to identify those that belong to the mythical(?) Davidic dynasty. Thus, the family name Fürst, which means "Prince" in German, is a "Germanization" of the old princely title recognized to Rubin's ancestors by the Jews and Muslims of al Andaluz. The family was also related to that of Abraham Senior - Coronel, the Spanish magnate - arguably the richest person in the history of that country.
Rubin Fürst wasalso known as Rubin Fürst - Mussaphia - Henriques. As we commented, he was a direct descendant of Juliana de Menezes. Juliana, in turn, was married to Rodrigo Tomás da Veiga[1.429], son of Tomás da Veiga[1.428] and Constanca Coronel[1.430], who in turn, was the daughter of Abraham Senior - Coronel[1.431] and Violante de Cabrera[1.432] who were on this account, my 21st great grandparents. In turn, Violante de Cabrera was a great grand daughter of Lope González de Madrid, Gibaja y Fernández[1.433] and María de Vera y Aragón[1.434]. Violante's family also identified itself using the family name Martel to indicate that they were descendants of Charlemagne.
Violante de Cabrera was a sister of Pedro López de Madrid y Cabrera[1.435], and Pedro's grandson, Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera y Toledo[1.435], who on this account was my 19th great grand uncle, became the founder of the city of Córdoba on July 6, 1573, in today's Argentina. He was a naval officer, an "Adelantado", governor of Tucumán and explorer. He arguably died in 1574 in Santiago del Estero, also belonging today to Argentina. He was sentenced to death by the Viceroy of Perú because he "illegaly" founded Córdoba... One wonders why the Spanish empire finally crumbled on its own weight, right?
This is interesting also because these facts predate by more than a century the contacts that the ancestors of the Skowronek family had with Argentina. Indeed, Baron Manuel de Belmonte in 1695 wrote to William of Orange that a ship had already departed for Buenos Aires on that year (See Schoenberg). Córdoba is today a prosperous city, and one of the biggest in Argentina, sporting one of the oldest universities founded outside Europe. The Universidad de Cordoba exists since 1613.
Going back to the Middle East ancient origins of the Fürst family, Hiyya al Daudi descendend from Hezekiah HaGaon, who was a scholar from Pumbedita[1.418], and who, in turn, descended from Khazuv ben Pinkus HaNasi[1.419] who is, according to this data, my 36th great grandfather and belongs to the bloodline of the Exilarchs. He descended from Bustanai ben Haninai[1.20] and Princess Dara Azdawar Izdundad[1.21], daughter of Yazdegerd III, the last Sassanid Shah of Persia[1.420].
Muslims recognized the princely title to the ancestors of Rubin Fürst because as Persia fell into the hands of the Islamic advance during the seventh century, they married the daughters of Yazdegerd III. One - Dara - with a Jewish Exilarch, and another called Shahrbanu[1.22] - with Hussein Ibn Ali[1.22], who in turn, was a grandson of Prophet Muhammad[1.420]. Peroz II, brother of Dara, escaped Persia and went to China - it seems that he became a General in Tibet - and there was yet another sister that was married to Caliph Muhammad Ibn Abu Bakr. The leaders of the Muslim occupation of Persia arranged these marriages in order to gain legitimacy for their own power there. So they made arrangements to marry the daughters of the last ruler of non-Islamic Persia with the Jewish descendants of King David (see Overview of the Davidic Tradition) and the religious and political authorities of their own side, so as to provide an idea of continuity and gain religious legitimacy. The issue of producing descendants from prophet Muhammad later evolved into a serious problem with Islam, which led to the current division between Shias and Sunnis
So, by the time in which Rubin lived, the family probably decided to revive their old titles as a surname, in line with customary practices and traditions, to guarantee the survival of ancient family names. As the Belmontes did, adopting the name Schoenberg, the Dinis family adopted a new name, in German, evocative of their own ancestry. Probably the family name at that time was also used as a royal or noble title in the European sense, since Fürst used just as a family name could have been interpreted as the usurpation of titles, especially considering that they were Jews. even today in Europe, you just cannot use a false title unless you want to end up in jail.
The fact that all these events took place from the seventh century C.E. and up to the present mean that the existing documentation is credible. I have stated elsewhere and repeatedly that historical evidence in this regard can be considered very credible back to the time of Charlemagne, which would be more or less about the time of the fall of Sassanid Persia.
Moreover: It is hard to imagine that some people would survive carrying an illegitimate family name or title over fifteen centuries and essentially four different cultural environments - Magi Persia, Islam, the Jewish society and Christian Europe - in all of which the usurpation of titles was severely punished. Quite on the contrary, the marriages of members of the Fürst line over such a period of time, both with encumbered Jewish, Christian and Muslim families indicates that the bloodline of the Fürst family was taken seriously.
In 1995 Avrim Blum and Merrick Furst described the Graphlan algorithm. This is basically a very efficient method used in computer science for artificial intelligence planning based on what is described as a STRIPS environment. STRIPS is a planning language - much like a computer programming language, but used for planning purposes - that has been in use since the late sixties. Despite that other planning languages like PDDL, ADDL, NDDL and RDDL have emerged for different purpostes, STRIPS and its Graphlan algorithm still are in use.
Going back in time, the descendants of Rubin Fürst married with people bearing surnames such as Goldschmidt, Broda, Schiff and Rotenberg, which are related to the Schoenberg family as well. Then, the Hatalgi - Halpern Testimonies (see Yad Vashem Pages of Testimony) like in the case of Lejzor Ferszt[1.274] declares them to be cousins of the Skowronek family of Warsaw which also descends from the Schoenberg family.
These testimonies suggest that there were no Holocaust survivors in Warsaw bearing the name Ferszt; there might be, but we do not know about them yet, so we stick to what documentation survived and is available.
According to these testimonies, Rozenberg and Zajdman are two surnames directly related to Ferszt in the Polish capital as well. Civil records also indicate that the surnames Fajngold and Graf are also related to Ferszt, and in combination with the Rozen Testimonies (see Yad Vashem Pages of Testimony) it can be seen that Majer Aronson[1.275] and Sura Malka Ferszt[1.276] had a daughter named Sura[1.277] who Married Hersz Soloveitchik[1.278], while Mala Soloveitchik[1.278] was married into the Schoenberg family according to the Schiffer - Soloveitchik testimonies (see Yad Vashem Pages of Testimony).
These are the documented family names to which Fürst is related mainly in Poland and its direct ancestors Dinis, de Milao and Yachya back to the IX century:
A: Adalberg, Adler, Abrabanel, Ajzen, Ajzyk, Akierman, al Daudi, Alboijm, Altholz, Abraham, Appel, Arbus, Arek, Arenstein, Arg, Aron, Aronowicz, Aronski, Aronson, Averbuj.
B: Bachmann, Barth, Bauer, Baumgarten, Baumwol, Bend, Bender, Berger, Bergerbaum, Berenstein, Bergstein, Berman, Binenfeld, Birken, Biter, Biren, Bleiberg, Bluht, Bochner, Bonn, Borenstein, Bram, Brand, Braf, Brenner, Brody, Bruh, Buchholz, Bursztyn, Byck.
C: Cejlon, Charlap, Charytan, Coronel, Cuasnico, Cukl, Cung, Cygenfeld, Cytryn, Czerniak.
D: Daniel, Dauermann, da Veiga, Dawidson, de Aragón, de Cabrera, de Cetina, de Falacios, de Gibaja, Deitel, de Madrid, de Menezes, de Vera, Dias, Dobrzynski, Dombrowski, Dorfsman, Drexler, Driller, Dyamant, Dytman.
E: Eisner, Eger - Gans, Egid, Ehmann, Eibeschutz, Eigermann, Einstein, Elbaum, Elcter, Ellenbogen, Elsztajn, Emanuel, Engelsberg, Epstein, Erder, Erlich.
F: Fajfaszow, Fajngold, Farnman, Faska, Federbusch, Feiler, Feldinger, Fernandez, Fernbach, Fersztenfeld, Feuering, Finkel, Fischbein, Flamenbaum, Fleischer, Fleischmann, Fraenkel, Frajman, Freitag, Freyer, Fryszman, Fromer.
G: Gaier, Garfunkel, Gelband, Gelbfarb, Geldzeiler, Gelenter, Gertner, Gielstein, Giertel, Glass, Gliksman, Glyk, Gnacik, Goldach, Goldglas, Goldschmidt, Goldstein, Goldtzeig, Gomes, Gomperz, Gortler, Gotezman, Graf, Grajf, Grajser, Granek, Grochownia, Grossman, Grotewohl, Grutzhendler, Grünbaum, Grünfeld, Grünspan, Gutbrodt, Gutman, Guthayt, Gwirtz.
H: Hahn, Hapfenfeld, Heilbrunn, Hellmann, Hendel, Hendles, Hersz, Hilf, Himiel, Himmelblau, Hochberg, Hofman, Holzberg, Höring.
I: Icekson, Igra, Ilowski, Isbicki, Israel.
J: Jaffe, Jagoda, Jahr, Jakubowicz, Janowski, Jassy, Jaworski, Jederman, Jung.
K: Kaiser, Kalb, Kanowicz, Kaplow, Katz, Katzenstein, Kaytel, Kajtelgiser, Kamienny, Kawensztok, Kempinski, Kessel, Kestenberg, Kidster, Kleinhorn, Klinghoffer, Kluch, Kopfenfeld, Kon, König, Königsberg, Köstenbaum, Kramer, Krieger, Kromwahl, Kronenberg, Kuperstein, Kwiatowicz.
L: Lajter, Lax, Lefel, Lehrman, Lerner, Levin, Lewenfus, Liber, Licht, Lichtenberg, Lichter, Lifschitz, Ling, Litnowny, Lyakhter, Liys, London, Lopes, Löwenthal, Lubin, Lubner, Lubraniecki.
M: Machalup, Mager, Mallerman, Makowiecki, Manrique, Margolis, Marianka, Markiewicz, Mates, Meisinger, Mendelbaum, Mer, Mikolowski, Mincheks, Mintz, Mlynarski, Mnewski, Moskowicz, Mroka, Munsztajn, Mussaphia, Myszkowski.
N: Najberg, Nejmark, Niewolski, Nowodworski, Nunberg.
O: Oberbaden, Oberlander, Oberst, Offenbach, Opfer, Oppenheim, Ortner.
P: Paluch, Papke, Perbemutter, Pfeffer, Plaut, Plocki, Pollak, Pope, Potaznik, Preiser, Puter.
R: Rachenstein, Racimer, Racimora, Racychman, Rajs, Rak, Rapaport, Rathaus, Rauch, Raszman, Redner, Rein, Reiwer, Richter, Rinzler, Ritter, Rodrigues, Rotenberg, Roth, Rothfeld, Rothschild, Rotman, Rottersman, Rosenbaum, Rosenberg, Rosenblum, Rosenthal, Rozentreger, Rotblat, Rozen, Rozynes, Rubinstein, Rudorfer, Rytenbaum.
S: Sachs, Salomonsen, Salzberg, Schiff, Schiller, Schlechter, Schlessinger, Schmidt, Schneebaum, Schindelheim, Schnitzmacher, Schoenberg, Schönwetter, Schor, Schwadron, Schwalb, Schwarz, Schwarzmann, Spitzberg, Schwalbendorf, Schuhman, Schreiner, Schwarz, Segal, Seiden, Senior, Siegel, Sitarski, Soldan, Sonenthal, Sperling, Steif, Steinwurzel, Stumpf, Silberschutz, Sitarska, Stawiskowski, Stern, Strauss, Strochlitz, Szafir, Szarf, Szchmaltzbach, Szechter, Szlajcher, Szmergel, Sznajman, Szofel, Szper, Szpicman, Sztammer, Sztybel, Sztykgold, Szulman, Szyc.
T: Targowicz, Tauber, Tejtelbaum, Telstscher, Tenenbaum, Tepler, Teppich, Troman, Tropen, Truk, Tzina U: Unterbuch.
W: Wajngarten, Wajnryb, Waks, Warszawiak, Watroba, Weil, Weinberg, Weiss, Winer, Wisniewski, Wisznicki, Welczer, Wojdeslawski, Wolf, Wolfheim, Wolfisz.
Z: Zajac, Zajdman, Zak, Zandberg, Zaslow, Zattenberg, Zayde, Zeligman, Zelcer, Zelmanowicz, Zimerman, Zing, Zottenberg, Zwerdling, Zylberg, Zylberstejn, Zynger, Zysman.
The Rozen testimonies point out that Abraham Aronson[1.279], who was a son of Majer Aronson and Sura Malka Ferszt married Tola Berger[1.279]. Both are listed by the Rozens as their cousins, and at the same time, they declare that the Blat family of Warsaw (see Khaim Gedaliahu Blat and Hersz Josek Blat) are their cousins too.
In Warsaw and other Polish cities the name Fersztendig coexists with Fürst and Ferszt. Despite that they are similar-sounding, however, no direct connection between the two could be established. While it is not impossible, if it exists it would probably be thorough marriages of cousins because the two names seem to have different roots. We already described those of the name Fürst, so we just need to add that Fersztendig seems to originate from the German "verstaendig" or Dutch "verstandig", meaning "understanding". Therefore, two different roots indicate different origins.
Since the Blats were married also with the Skowronek and Schoenberg families, the Soloveitchik family is related to Schoenberg according to the Schiffer Soloveitchik testimonies and to Blat, according to the Kronenberg testimonies (see Yad Vashem Pages of Testimony) the links between Schoenberg and Fuerst in the XIV, XVII, XIX and XX centuries become clear.
So, this establishes via secondary proof that the hypothesis of Gottheil concerning the origins of the Schoenbergs in Portugal and belonging to the Lancastre family and hence, to the Avis dynasty can be confirmed via a second genealogy.
Royalty III, Pablo Edronkin.
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