Articles and Comments - Outdoors / Exploration and Expeditions

Whether your interest lies within expeditions and trips or you want to learn about different uncharted places, tricks of the trade and possibilities, start reading this section.

Henry the Navigator - Dom Henrique de Avis was born on March 4, 1394; until his death on November 30, 1460 he achieved many things of importance for the history of mankind; he was a Prince and an explorer, and he is still remembered as Henry the Navigator.

Antonio Armijo, Pioneer of Las Vegas - The impact that an explorer or traveller might have in our culture can be significant, even when no one suspects so: Almost everyone in the world has heard about Las Vegas yet, no one when the name was first used could probably imagine what would it mean today; not even its creator.

Dom Lopo Vaz de Sampaio, Knight, Explorer, and Governor of India - The father of Dom Iago de Sampaio y Belmonte dedicated his life to maritime exploration and trade between Portugal and the Far East during the XV and XVI centuries.

The Baluchitherium of Chapman Andrews - The idea that monsters do exist comes probably from the finding of fossil remains long before their original was scientifically explained for the first time, around 1850 when the science of palaeontology was born, but aside from the fact that we know the origins of those bones turned into stone, they don't cease to fascinate us. Moreover: dinosaur fossils are extremely valuable, surpassing millions of dollars in net worth.

The Age of Discovery and its Financiers - Starting in the XV century, the age of discovery was a period of extensive European exploration of the world that included Columbus' trip to America, the feats of Vasco da Gama, Cabral and many others, but someone had to pay for the whole thing, and – perhaps you guessed – there were Jewish financiers backing it all up.

The Treasure Ships - Only few times you will be able to get significant prizes without significant efforts: during the thirteenth century China had the most advanced naval and marine technology in the world, and as the ancient nation was attempting to expand its dominions and power, it began to develop oceanic commerce but had to make very significant investments in engineering and the construction of enormous shipyards.

Ancestors of the Skowronek Family in Portuguese Naval Expeditions - Sailing in caravels, carracks and galleons, some ancestors of the Skowronek family belonging to the Schoenberg (Sampayo – Belmonte) branch living in Portugal in the XV and XVI centuries took part in the expeditions that opened the sea trade between Europe and Asia.

The Jewels That Always Were There - Practically speaking, you can find all sorts of gems and valuables all around the world thanks to the monumental changes that took place over hundreds of millions of years. Of course, if what you are looking for is just to make some quick money, you would be better off playing in a casino, but with a little patience and knowledge, you can find gems and treasures almost anywhere.

What Do You Have To Take Into Account Before Looking For Gold? - We have found gold because we are explorers, have an eye for such things and like to go away from civilisation; but if you don't want to travel then you will be better off doing something else like playing poker, the lottery, or simply working hard on a routine job.

NASA'S Swift Satellite Spots Black Hole Devouring A Star - Two studies appearing in the Aug. 25 issue of the journal Nature provide new insights into a cosmic accident that has been streaming X-rays toward Earth since late March. NASA's Swift satellite first alerted astronomers to intense and unusual high-energy flares from the new source in the constellation Draco.

Gold And Toes From The Yukon - The Yukon is a pretty interesting region not only by the terrific landscape but - of course - because there started the famous gold fever of the nineteenth century. It is known that hundreds of thousands of prospectors and explorers went to the area, but only a few became rich.

The Gamble Of The Conquistadores - The Spanish Conquistadores or conquerors are a prime example of what means betting your life to an idea: they literally abandoned the world they knew and their prior life in order to win a prize or die trying to.

The Citroên - Haardt Trans-Asiatic Expedition - It is quite an experience to travel by truck, and drivers have a whole and fascinating subculture of their own; sometimes, overlanding or navigating with trucks over terrain becomes quite difficult and dangerous.

The Wadi - There are individuals who judge others; in order to judge other people, there has never been a shortage of candidates and we have had our share of mismanered rednecks that seemed poised in just making beer-loaded critiques, but in life anything looking like someone is looking for fortune and a fortune in the oddest places is what really produces riches; explorers should leave talking to talking dung and do some more productive chores.

Changes In The Nile - The Nile river is famous basically for three things: it is one of the longest in the world, it has an uncannily fertile valley surrounding it in the middle of the desert, and it reminds us of the fabulously rich Egyptian culture.

The Phoenician Explorers - Phoenicians had a natural gift for business, but dedicating yourself to commerce in those days required an adequate combination of natural commercial instincts indeed, with the addition of exploratory abilities as well as military and combat skills.

Totems Pitted Against Explorers - Totems and riches are more associated between each other than what we would superficially appreciate most of the times.

The Heterodoxy Of Hawaii - Contrarily to common beliefs related to the islands, the original physiognomy of Hawaii was very different to today's popular images, and there are other weird things related to them that only a few know.

Skin Care For Outdoor Adventurers - Exploration and adventure put our skin under strain and more risks than usual: Dryness and dust in the air, more sunlight than we are accustomed to, heat and wind in places like the sea, deserts and even ice fields may cause diverse skin problems.

Why Didn't The Egyptians Build Pyramids In Paris? - It is interesting to think about the possible reasons that precluded such an advanced society from establishing colonies thorough the Mediterranean, and the answer might just be found in the local botanical landscape.

The Right Team, The Right Stuff - Choosing the right team to perform any task is a long, often tedious and hard thing to do but the difference between preparation and lack of it is perhaps more evident than anywhere else within a company, army or group of any kind.

The Origins Of Naval And Marine Technology - The construction of boats and vessels is tightly related to survival as well as to exploration and the progress of mankind.

The Gea Org - Know the investigations and developments of the Grupo Explorador Argentino (GEA), whose knowledge in the topics of expeditions, mountaineering, survival, first aid, science, technology, self-defense, organisation and leadership have made the existence of Andinia.com possible.

Your adventure footwear (I) - Some advice about trekking, adventure and mountaineering footwear.

Your new sleeping bag (I) - Some tips that you should consider before buying a new sleeping bag.

About your adventure clothes, (I) - How you should choose your adventure clothing.

How to purchase your next tent (I) - Some tips that you should consider before purchasing your next tent.

Your new sleeping bag (I) - In order to use a sleeping bag in the best possible way, it is necessary to conceive it as a system composed by three elements...

Emergencies during wilderness trips (I) - A description about how to handle them within the framework of a group.

Steps to follow during a wilderness emergency (I) - A set of logically consistent steps for surviving any accident or disaster.

Preventing dangerous situations (I) - Basic rules for preventive wilderness survival.

Military-Style Outdoors (I) - The use of military uniforms for outdoor activities has its advantages and disadvantages.

Taking youngsters to wilderness trips (I) - A few comments about taking youngsters and children with you on treks and trips to the wildreness.

Notes On Picking Fossils (I) - Picking fossils may be interesting, but sometimes is agaist the law, especially if the extraction is intended for sale.

Exploration and Expeditions / Philosophy of Exploration - A lot of essays and articles on the philosophy of exploration, research and development of things, a new branch of philosophy that seeks to understand these human activities.

Outdoors / Survival - Articles based on real-life experiences. Practical and theoretical advice on survival in several levels of difficulty and diverse environments: polar zones, forests, forest, deserts, seas and oceans, extreme and hazardous sports, etc.

Health / First aid, wilderness emergencies - Outdoor activities always entail some risks to your physical integrity. Learn about the techniques and suitable behaviour for surviving emergencies and disasters.

Survival / Combustibles and Fire - How to improvise combustibles outdoors - How to survive in a fire - Tips and techniques for making camp fires.

Outdoor Activities / Survival / Shelters and Bivouacs - How to build simple ones or full-sized, lodges, cabins and stone houses, useful for lengthy stays in isolated areas.

Survival / Survival Tales - Articles telling histories and tales about real survival experiences.

Geography and Outdoors / Mountains and Mountainous Regions - Detailed descriptions of some mountains and ranges of Patagonia, South America and the rest of the world that we have explored.

Health / First aid, wilderness emergencies - Outdoor activities always entail some risks to your physical integrity. Learn about the techniques and suitable behaviour for surviving emergencies and disasters.

Outdoor Activities / Trekking, Camping and Excursions - Trekking, basic camping and hiking as related to many extreme sports. Fundamental techniques and advice.

Outdoor Activities / Extreme Wilderness Gourmet Cooking - Why deprive yourself of a good meal while being in the wilderness? Here we share our Neanderthal gourmet recipes with you.

Geography and Outdoors / Navigation and Maps - Learn how to navigate using maps, a compass, gps systems or simply by observing natural formations. Find your way whenever you get lost in the wilderness.

Adventure and adventurers - Something to think about the impulse that proples adventurers to success.

Take care of your provisions - Always take with you more provisions than those that you will really need.

Unconventionality - Something to think about what it takes to be unconventional.

Formal organisation in expeditions - Leaders should provide some degree offormalorganisation in serious expeditions.

Think about your 4 x 4 truck - Your 4 X 4 should do something more than just reach the supermarket.

This is the cost of the lack of prudency - A true life example of what can happen when prudency becomes irrelevant in outdoor activities.

Effective cost reduction techniques regarding adventure equipment - Some simple and proven tips to save money buying and using adventure and travel gear.

Spirit of adventure - Something to think about your hidden spirit of adventure.

Your resume - Something to think about the overvalued concept of a resume.

A brief reflection on the meaning of extreme situations - Something to think about the meaning and lessons that arise from extreme situations.

Home building - Do some research before starting to build your new house.

Wilderness tips and advice: leave your camp early - When should you leave your camp.

Wilderness tips and advice: don't keep on opening your backpack - Backpacks should not be opened all the time.

Wilderness tips and advice: learn about the places that you want to visit - learn and inform yourself about those places that you are planning on visiting.

Weather considerations - Wilderness tips and advice: do not forget the weather.

Carry backup systems - Wilderness tips and advice: carry backups for critical systems.

Think about those who will come after - Wilderness tips and advice: think about those who will trek after you.

Wilderness tips and advice: be courteous with locals - Be courteous with the indigenous population.

Do not forget about consulates abroad. - Wilderness tips and advice: Consular help is better than nothing.

Being obsessed? - Being obsessed with the unexplored?

Wilderness tips and advice: do not follow shortcuts - Do not follow shortcuts if you want to succeed.

Wilderness tips and advice: some basic management for trekkers - Your 4 X 4 should do something more than just reach the supermarket.

Wilderness tips and advice: dangerous cargo and backpacking - How to carry dangerous objects while backpacking.

Your limits - Something about your limits and what you can achieve.

Wilderness tips and advice: silence in the camp! - Be considerate with your fellow campers.

Wilderness tips and advice: get the right knife - Wilderness tips and advice: get the right knife for your trips.

Guns for the wilderness - A basic rule for selecting guns intended for heavy duty work.

One knife is not enough - Wilderness tips and advice: one knife is not enough for outdoor use.

Aluminium for survival - Use aluminium foil as a survival tool.

Volcanic terrain - Be careful with volcanic terrain.

How to prevent common mistakes while estimating distances - How to make correct distance estimations while trekking, avoiding most common mistakes.

Using stones with your tent - Some cautions to take into account while using stones with your tent.

How to select partners - Be careful with the partners you choose for a trek.

Avoid small problems - Wilderness tips and advice: be tidy and avoid small problems.

Snowfall and its problems for tents - What snowfall does to a tent and what should you do to prevent it.

Wilderness tips and advice: tell others - Tell others about your plans before going to trek for a while.

Wilderness tips and advice: check your tent - Avoid small, six-legged surprises inside your sleeping bag and your tent.

Sleeping bag hygiene - Adventure tips: a basic concept about sleeping bag hygiene.

Religion in the wilderness - Use aluminium foil as a survival tool.

Adventure tips: stop fooling with nature

The life of an explorer - What kind of life awaits you if you become an explorer.

The nature of adventurers. - The nature of an adventurer, become aware of the nature of an adventurer.

Adventure tips: maps for all. - About maps and your trekking companions.

Trekking tips: cook under the stars - Why you should cook under the stars while trekking.

How to avoid the effects of cold climate - The essence of how to avoid the effects of cold climate.

Take a solar charger with you - Trekking tips: take a solar charger for your batteries on your trips.

The general rule for calling the day - Trekking tips: the general rule for calling the day and stopping the walk.

Weather forecasting in Patagonia - Trekking tips: basic weather forecasting in the Patagonian Andes.

Expedition tips: how to fight cold temperatures with paper - How to use paper as protection from cold climate and freezing temperatures.

Don't depend solely on the guide of the group - Expedition tips: you should not depend absolutely on your guide.

Less weight on your backpack - Exploration tips: the basics of weight saving for adventure seekers.

Food distribution and redistribution - Comments on weight distribution for trekkers.

Less weigh with better equipment - New gear means less weight.

Exploration tips: don't buy just any rucksack - Don't be deceived by the spectacularity of models, buy one really suitable.

Keep your important papers with you! - Expedition tips: have your documents with you at all times.

Have a haircut - Expedition tips: cut your hair.

How to load your backpack - Exploration tips: backpack preparation.

Managing your biggest efforts - How to schedule your efforts.

Crossing rivers and streams - Considerations on how crossing streams and rivers.

How to proceed if you find a corpse - What to do if you find a corpse in your way.

Don't use second-hand boots - Second-hand boots are taboo items.

Wilderness tips and advice: how to pack your gear without forgetting anything

Wilderness tips and advice: basic care for wounds in the tropic

Wilderness tips and advice: animals are not dangerous.

Wilderness tips and advice: keep a diary or logbook

Wilderness tips and advice: walk, but do not run

Make room for trouble

Survival courses - The various survival courses available (basic, intermediate, advanced and superior survial courses), thorough Andinia.com and The Gea Org (distance learning).

First Aid Courses - The various first aid courses available (basic, intermediate, advanced and superior first aid courses) thorough Andinia.com and The Gea Org.

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